Monitoring and Evaluation for CBC - Questions and Answers


M&E for CBC - Questions and Answers

The following questions were asked by the participants during Webinar 4 through the chat module of ZOOM. All participants, including the facilitators, are invited to provide answers and share their personal and country experiences. Follow up questions are also welcome.  When answering, please indicate the question number you are addressing. You can provide your answers, comments and follow-up questions in the designated space for comments as provided below.

Question 1:How can the monitors and evaluators be trained to effectively conduct monitoring and evaluation?

Question 2: How can heads of educational institutions monitor implementation so that gaps are addressed before external bodies check?

Question 3: How can internal and peer monitoring be used to reinforce the realisation of expected outcomes seeing that external monitoring poses a challenge due to a lack of enough resources by a Ministry of Education?

Question 4: How did Kenya mobilise resources to support the implementation of the curriculum?

Question 5: Were all officers supporting this process retrained and for how long?

Question 6: Were parents involved in monitoring learning? And were they trained?

Question 7: Anything on the localised curriculum?

Question 8: How do you link the outcome of any type of Assessment as part of evaluation especially to assess the impact of the curriculum?

Question 9: Are the books arriving in time at schools?

Question 10: Were the textbooks developed at the same time as the curriculum was developed or after?



Ass. Prof Joyce Ayikoru A
27 July 2021, 9:37 PM
Nura Ibrahim A
28 July 2021, 4:30 PM

In Nigeria, M & E is still at the local education authority office-level not at the school level. However, the weekly visit to schools by the Quality assurance officers (These are M&E officers called Quality Assurance officers) provides support to the head of institutions in terms of continuous feedback on learning. However, I would propose the school-based M&E at the school level with leadership from the head of the institution.

Maurice Momo Nkusi
28 July 2021, 5:53 PM

It is a fact that parents involvement is very critical for the success of their children schooling journey. In most countries, if not all countries, the highest structure at the school level is the "Parent Association" or "School Board". This structure has different names in different countries but all of them have almost similar objectives but the common one is the quality education for their children. Depending on the leadership of the school, the school board meets at least once every school term and schools the school board members meet twice in a term to discuss all matters and make decisions. Parents are key for monitoring their children learning and give feedback on a regular basis. For example, several times a week, parents are given a book where they sign after they monitor their children homework and peruse their children performance. Occasionally, parents will be invited to meet the subject teachers and discuss their children performance. This approach is part of the formative M&E where parents are key to contribute to the success of the children and the school at large.

Concerning the question if parents are trained in M&E processes. The answer is yes because the schools organise capacity building for parents during the school board meetings or separate scheduled tailored made short training in any area where the involvement of parents is beneficial to the school and the learners.


Jacqueline Onyango
28 July 2021, 6:16 PM


Question 1: How can the monitors and evaluators be trained to effectively conduct monitoring
                     and evaluation?

We should appreciate that M&E is basically a research function. Often there are institutions that will offer training programmes in general M&E. The knowledge acquired can then be used in designing and implementing M&E of programmes depending on the stated/defined goals and objectives. However, it is very common in the education sector that most of the personnel who are expected to undertake M&E do not necessarily have formal training on the same. In such cases, it is essential that the persons expected to participate in M&E be oriented on how M&E has been conceptualized and planned in the specified programme and thus their role and what is expected of them should be clearly outlined.

An organization may opt to develop a guideline that provide specific instructions on how the specific M&E exercise will be conducted with regards to data collection tools, procedures, ethical behavior etc. This helps to create an equal understanding of the exercise and greatly minimizes error. The probable debate could be:

Should governments invest in formal training of officers in the education sector on M&E? If so who are the officers to be targeted?

Question 2: How can heads of educational institutions monitor implementation so that gaps are
                    addressed before external bodies check?

In the context of Kenya, the heads of institutions have clear guidelines on what they are expected to do in the school regarding management of teachers and monitoring the progress of learning. These guidelines emanate from the Directorate of Quality Assurance and also for the Teachers Service Commission which also has a Directorate of Quality Assurance. There is documentation that the head teachers and principals are expected to submit with regards to

  1. the number of teachers based on the Curriculum Based Establishment which defines the number of teachers in a school
  2. number of pupils in the school segregated according to their gender
  3. infrastructure in the school (classes, toilets, workshops, dormitories, kitchen etc.
  4. number of support staff

Question 3: How can internal and peer monitoring be used to reinforce the realization of expected
                    outcomes seeing that external monitoring poses a challenge due to a lack of enough
                    resources by a Ministry of Education?

Quite a challenging area. Can the team weigh in with their experiences? Indeed, resources are always a challenge. However, seeking partnerships and collaboration is a critical component that can mitigate all these.

Colleagues what is your take on this?

Jacqueline Onyango
28 July 2021, 6:24 PM

Question 4: How did Kenya mobilize resources to support the implementation of the curriculum?

Kenya under taking the reform process through a multi-stakeholder approach that brings on board the Ministry of Education, Teacher’s Service Commission and Semi-Autonomous Government Agencies, Faith Based Organizations and International partners. The engagements have from the initial stages involved the Parliamentary Committee on Education and Research which has gone a long way in ensuring that the funds needed for the reform are allocated by Government through treasury. In this regard, 90% of the curriculum reform budget is financed by Government with the remaining 10% emanating from technical or material support from partners. Based on the collaborative approach, each institution is able to pick up the component of the reform and finance it within their mandate which has led to more efficient use of funds and coverage of milestones required. For example, in curriculum design and development, Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development (KICD) takes the lead in collaboration with relevant agencies, on assessment, the Kenya National Examinations Council (KNEC) takes the lead; while on teacher training the Teachers Service Commission (TSC) takes the lead.

Question 5: Were all officers supporting this process retrained and for how long?

The implementation process has been undertaken by the Ministry of Education and various agencies. All the officers in the Ministry of Education who are directly charged with implementation of Early Learning and Basic Education were inducted on the CBC. The same to KICD, KNEC and TSC officers. Others included institutions that support other functions such as training of institutional leaders (Kenya Education Management Institute), in-service training of teachers CEMASTEA and training of teachers of learners with special needs (Kenya Institute of Special Education). The field officers have also been trained. These government officers have been the team that is utilized based on a cascade mode to train the teachers across the country. This has led to the training of over 200,000 primary school teachers in readiness for implementation of CBC. The training is undertaken during the holiday period and has been continuous since 2017. The government fully funds this endeavor. 

However even with the training of such a large mass of personnel, there are still challenges experienced in implementation relating to poor interpretation of the curriculum designs, inadequate understanding of assessment etc. These aspects continue to be addressed in different training forums.

Question 6: Were parents involved in monitoring learning? And were they trained?

Quite a large number of parents have been doing this as they are expected to support the children. The CBC envisages that the parent will be at the centre of the learning process so that the child is equally supported at home as they are in school. From the data we have gathered from the parents during our monitoring they have been aptly involved. In fact some of them actually complain that they are expected to do too much yet they have their own jobs.

What are the experiences in your countries?

Question 7: Anything on the localized curriculum?

Kenya offers a national curriculum which is common to all the recipients regardless of their location. Nevertheless, based on the activities the learners are engaged in, there is flexibility in drawing on content in the learner’s specific environment based on the expected coverage. For example, learning about economic activities. Kenya is divers with 44 difference community orientations. The economic activities vary with some associated with unique regions. While the learners are exposed to a wide range of general activities that are found across the country they have direct engagement with the relevant activities within their immediate context.

Question 8: How do you link the outcome of any type of Assessment as part of evaluation specially to assess the impact of the curriculum?

This is a good question. As Kenya we have not used even done any impact evaluations and are just beginning to think about it. Any countries that have done this? Would be glad to learn from them.

Question 9: Are the books arriving in time at schools?

Yes, the books for learners are arriving in schools. The pupil’s books and teachers guides for all learners are provided by the government through capitation per learner. The books for schools are developed by publishers and submitted for evaluation to Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development (KICD). Once selection of the appropriate books are done the publishers are commissioned to print and distribute directly to schools across the country.

Question 10: Were the textbooks developed at the same time as the curriculum was developed or after?

The textbooks are developed after the curriculum has been approved for use in schools. The reform is being implemented progressively, one grade at a time. Thus, the books are developed for each class in the year preceding implementation. They are distributed to the schools before the new school begins.

Maurice Momo Nkusi
29 July 2021, 6:07 AM

Dear Doug,

Welcome to the CBC community of practice and thank you for your valuable contributions in this post; it is appreciated. Indeed I browsed the sites you shared the link and they have information that members of this community will find informative, especially the monitoring, reporting, evaluating and improving that is aligned to this post. I encourage members of this community to visit these sites. Have a nice day and keep sharing.

Maurice Momo Nkusi
29 July 2021, 6:11 AM

Dear Nura, thank you for sharing the Nigerian practice on M&E. We need to hear how M&E is managed and conducted in other countries as well. Let us keep sharing.

Maurice Momo Nkusi
29 July 2021, 4:44 PM
Ass. Prof Joyce Ayikoru A
29 July 2021, 4:48 PM

Question 2: How can heads of educational institutions monitor implementation so that gaps are addressed before external bodies check?

If we view M & E as a "process of establishing to what degree, and in what manner an institution has reached it goals" (Podogornik & Mazgon, 2015), then monitoring by heads of institutions becomes very important to ensure continuous improvement. A head of an institution therefore, must play a keen role to ensure self-evaluation is an ongoing process that is built into all activities of an institution so that with or without an external check, the institution is still on track. In the event that there is no defined M & E unit at institution level, like it is in most of our Primary and Secondary Schools in Uganda, it may be practical to appoint a committee responsible for M & E to assist the head of institution to carry out this critical function. Most important is to ensure such a Committee is trained and possess the competences to effectively carry out M&E. Lets continue to share more experiences.       

Maurice Momo Nkusi
06 August 2021, 12:57 PM

Dear Lola,

Thank you very much for your inputs and contributions. The design of your monitoring system is good since you have people in charge of monitoring the teaching, learning and assessment. As you clearly indicated that the implementation has some challenges due to insufficient resources for the inspector to visit all the schools and support all the teachers in need; maybe you need to consider the use of technology to increase the professional development interventions. In Namibia, we are using the tele-teaching method using the android smartphone connected to a speaker for all teachers in a room to hear the voice of the instructor and the same instructor will hear the participants through the amplifier of the speaker via the smartphone. The presentation materials will be shared with the participants beforehand and the session will be live, the same way we operate with Zoom or any other virtual platform but without a video. Regarding the class visit, the inspector in your case may follow the class facilitation live through the tele-teaching method and at the same time, the teacher records the learning facilitation session. After the session, the teacher submits the video to the inspector who actually attended the live classroom facilitation through the tele-teaching method. this method does not require much investment and it can help in the situation where there are no financial resources to organise schools' visits. I will provide you with more information about this methodology and it really works well. I can even organise a session with teachers in Lesotho, just for demonstration purposes to discuss CBC; without me travelling to your country. Let us keep sharing using this space.  Keep well and safe.


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